The Florida Seminoles

Lesson Plans


Treaty of Fort Gibson, 1833

The delegation of Seminole leaders reached the Indian Territory in 1833. They surveyed the lands assigned to them and met with U.S. government officials at Fort Gibson, Arkansas territory. There, at Fort Gibson, the Americans coerced the Seminole delegation into affirming the terms of removal discussed at Payne’s Landing. These strong-arm tactics resulted in the Treaty of Fort Gibson (ratified 1834).

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Treaty of Fort Gibson, 1833 (page 1)

Treaty with the Seminole, 1833.

[Mar. 28, 1833]

[7 Stat., 423.]

[Proclamation, Apr. 12, 1834.]


Whereas, the Seminole Indians of Florida, entered into certain articles of agreement, with James Gadson, [Gadsden,] Commission on behalf of the United States, at Payne’s landing, on the 9th day of May, 1832: the first article of which treaty or agreement provides, as follows: “The Seminole Indians relinquish to the United States all claim to the land they at present occupy in the Territory of Florida, and agree to emigrate to the country assigned to the Creeks, west of the Mississippi river; it being understood that an additional extent of territory proportioned to their number will be added to the Creek country, and that the Seminoles will be received as a constituent part of the Creek nation, and be re-admitted to all the privileges as members of the same.” And whereas, the said agreement also stipulates and provides, that a delegation of Seminoles should be sent at the expense of the United States to examine the country to be allotted them among the Creeks, and should this delegation be satisfied with the character of the country and of the favorable disposition of the Creeks to unite with them as one people, then the aforementioned treaty would be considered binding and obligatory upon the parties.

[Treaty with the Creeks of Feb. 14, 1833]

And whereas a treaty was made between the United States and the Creek Indians west of the Mississippi, at Fort Gibson, on the 14th day of February 1833, by which a country was provided for the Seminoles in pursuance of the existing arrangements between the United States and that tribe. And whereas, the special delegation, appointed by the Seminoles on