The Florida Seminoles
Treaty of Moultrie Creek, 1823
The Treaty of Camp Moultrie (1823), also known as Moultrie Creek, came on the heels of the cession of Florida from Spain to the U.S. in 1821. The primary goal of this treaty was to obtain Seminole lands in North Florida targeted for the expansion of plantation slavery. The treaty created a reservation in Central Florida and provided goods, tools, and an annuity to help relocate the Seminoles.
Treaty with the Florida Tribes of Indians, 1823
[September 18, 1823]
[7 Stat., 224. Proclamation. Jan. 2, 1824]
[Said Indians to continue under the protection of the United States.]
Article I. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for themselves and their tribes, have appealed to the humanity, and thrown themselves on, and have promised to continue under, the protection of the United States, and of no other nation, power, or sovereign; and, in consideration of the promises and stipulations hereinafter made, do cede and relinquish all claim or title which they may have to the whole territory of Florida, with the exception of such district of country as shall herein be allotted to them.
[Said Indians to be confined to the following metes and bounds.]
Article II. The Florida tribes of Indians will hereafter be concentrated and confined to the following metes and boundaries: commencing five miles north of Okehumke, running in a direct line to a point five miles west of Setarky’s settlement, on the waters of the Amazura, (or Withlahuchie river,) leaving said settlement two miles south of the line; from thence, in a direct line, to the south end of the Big Hammock, to include Chickuchate; continuing, in the same direction, for five miles beyond the said Hammock—provided said point does not approach nearer than fifteen miles the sea coast of the Gulf of Mexico; if it does, the said line will terminate at that distance from the sea coast; thence, south, twelve miles; thence in a south 30 east direction, until the same shall strike within five miles of the main branch of Charlotte river; thence, in a due east direction, to within twenty miles of the Atlantic coast; thence, north, fifteen west, for fifty miles and from this last, to the beginning point.
[United States to take the Florida Indians under their care, etc.]
Article III. The United States will take the Florida Indians under their care and patronage, and will afford them protection against all persons whatsoever; provided they conform to the laws of the United States, and refrain from making war, or giving any insult to any foreign nation, without having first obtained the permission and consent of the United States: And, in consideration of the appeal and cession made in the first article of this treaty, by the aforesaid chiefs and warriors, the United States promise to distribute of their agent, implements of husbandry, and stock of cattle and hogs, to the amount of six thousand dollars, and an annual sum of five thousand dollars a year, for twenty successive years, to be distributed as the President of the United States shall direct, through the Secretary of War, or his Superintendents and Agent of Indian Affairs.
[United States to guaranty peaceable possession of the district assigned them, on certain conditions.]
Article IV. The United States promise to guaranty to the said tribes the peaceable possession of the district of country herein assigned them, reserving the right of opening through it such roads, as may, from time to time, be deemed necessary; and to restrain and prevent all white persons from hunting, settling, or otherwise intruding upon it. Buy any citizens of the United States, being lawfully