Abraham, Black Seminole interpreter and war leader.

31651
Date
Between 1836 and 1840
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
RC08709
Black Seminoles

Black Seminole smokes from his pipe - Everglades, Florida.

71268
Date
1952
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
C017188
Black Seminole smokes

An old Black Seminole Indian in a wheelchair - Charlie Dixie Camp, Florida

165055
Date
195-
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
PE1033
An old Black Seminole

Black Seminole Indian, sitting in a wheelchair - Charlie Dixie Camp, Florida

164405
Date
195-
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
PE0381
Black Seminole Indian

Thomas Sidney Jesup and the Second Seminole War

257297
Collection
Blog Posts
Black Seminoles

Seminole Indians at a table having lunch - Charlie Dixie Camp, Florida

164713
Date
195-
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
PE0690
Black Seminole families

Seminole Indians having a picnic - Charlie Dixie Camp, Florida

165074
Date
195-
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
PE1052
Black Seminole families

Seminole men in a dugout canoe - Chokoloskee, Florida

63758
Date
19--
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
BD090
Black Seminole men

Portrait of "Uncle" Billy - Quincy, Florida

892
Date
18--
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
PR00919
Black Seminole men--Florida--Quincy

Florida's Underground Railroad (Part Three)

257951
Collection
Blog Posts
Black Seminoles

Seminole Indians sitting around a table, in front of chickee - Charlie Dixie Camp, Florida

164361
Date
195-
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
PE0337
Black Seminole families

Seminole Indians sitting around a table, in front of chickee - Charlie Dixie Camp, Florida

164391
Date
195-
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
PE0367
Black Seminole families

Seminole Indians sitting around a table in front of chickee - Charlie Dixie Camp, Florida

164526
Date
195-
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
PE0503
Black Seminole families

Burning of the Town Pilak-Li-Ka-Ha by Gen. Eustis.

258355
Date
1837
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
DG01163
Black Seminoles

Seminole Indians

4363
Date
ca 1852
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
PR04927
Standing: black Seminole

Engraving of John Horse.

31659
Date
ca 1842
Collection
Florida Photographic Collection
Image Number
RC08718
Black Seminoles

Folklife Subject: Seminoles

274022
Collection
Florida Folklife Collection
Description
The Florida Seminoles migrated into northern and central Florida beginning in the early 1700s. The word "Seminole" formed from a combination of the words cimarron and simanoli. The Spanish term cimarron means "runaway" or "renegade." The Muscogee term simanoli means "those that camp at a distance." Following a series of wars against the United States in the 19th century, only about 200 Seminoles remained in Florida. The tribe obtained federal recognition in the 1950s and 60s, and has long been active in Florida politics, business, and culture. Seminole traditions that have been passed down into our own era include crafts like palmetto basket-weaving and doll-making, patchwork textiles and beadwork.
Type
interactive resource
, Creek, Black Seminoles

Thomas Sidney Jesup and the Second Seminole War (Part Seven)

258349
Date
March 18, 1837
Collection
Blog Posts
Black Seminoles

Jesup Diary

252864
Collection
Jesup Diary
Description
Thomas Sidney Jesup Seminole Wars Second Seminole War 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1849 1841 1842 United States Army Seminole Indians Abraham Micanopy Jumper Cloud Osceola Sam Jones Echo Harjo Coacoochee Wildcat John Oponee guerilla warfare military King Philip John Caesar Withlacoochee Powell Black Seminoles Cooper Alligator Halpatter Tustunugee Osuchee Ocklawaha Jim Boy Apopka cattle Holatoochee Yaholoochee Charley Emathla negros John Hicks Abica Abhika Holata Mico Micco Billy Bowlegs
Withlacoochee Powell Black Seminoles

Apopka

295123
Date
2013-09-04
Collection
Blog Posts
captured, including 8 Black

British Intrigue and the Events at Prospect Bluff

254519
Date
1792 1800 1816
Collection
Blog Posts
Black Seminoles

Thomas Sidney Jesup and the Second Seminole War (Part Eight)

258347
Date
1836 1837
Collection
Blog Posts
of Black Seminoles in Florida

Thomas Sidney Jesup and the Second Seminole War (Part Six)

257955
Date
February 3, 1837
Collection
Blog Posts
the black Seminole Abraham

Letter from John Blunt to William S. Pope, May 3, 1833

255636
Date
1833-06-03
Collection
Significant Documents
Description
Creek Indian society underwent significant changes in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Among these were the introduction of African slavery, the movement of some individuals away from communal property and towards private land ownership, and the emergence of nativist religious leaders committed to purging these outside influences from their culture. John Blunt (or Blount), for whom Blountstown, Florida, is named, was a product of these times. Born to a Creek mother and European father sometime in the mid-18th century, the mestizo Blunt grew up in Tuckabatchee, a large Upper Creek town located on the Tallapoosa River in what is now central Alabama. Considered an important town in the Creek Confederacy, Tuckabatchee was home to Big Warrior, a principal leader of the Creeks until his death in the 1820s. When a civil war erupted in the Creek Country in 1813, known as either the Red Stick War or the Creek War, Blunt joined the side friendly to the United States. The so-called “friendly” Creeks opposed the Red Stick faction of the tribe, who were determined to expel white influence from their culture and revive native ways. Blunt fought alongside Andrew Jackson’s troops and more than 1,000 friendly Creek warriors in the decisive battle of the Red Stick War at Horseshoe Bend in March 1814. In 1816, Blunt again joined the Americans in the destruction of the Negro Fort, located on Prospect Bluff 16 miles upstream from the mouth of the Apalachicola River. After expelling the hostile Creeks, Seminoles, and their African allies from the region, Blunt and hundreds of other friendly Creeks appropriated land along the fertile river, and thereafter became known as Apalachicola Indians. Blunt’s loyalty to the Americans continued during the First Seminole War (1816-1818) when his people participated in the destruction of Seminole and black Seminole towns from the Red Hills to the Suwannee River. Because of his loyalty to the Americans, Blunt and other Apalachicola Indians received special concessions in the Treaty of Moultrie Creek (1823). The treaty reserved land in Central Florida for the Seminoles and dictated that all Florida Indians must relocate to the reservation. When faced with the prospect of moving, Blunt and the Apalachicolas refused and pleaded to remain in the Panhandle. In the end, the Americans agreed and created separate reservations along the Apalachicola River. Despite his long-standing cooperation with the Americans, Blunt faced a series of problems in the decade following the Treaty of Moultrie Creek. White settlers from Georgia, Alabama and Florida repeatedly harassed the Apalachicolas, stealing their livestock and slaves. Officials seemed powerless or unwilling to stop these raids on the Apalachicola reservations. The letter below represents one instance of violence and theft committed against Blunt and his family. In the letter, Blunt pleads with the local Indian agent, Judge William S. Pope, to apprehend the attackers and secure the return of his property. By the early 1830s, Blunt and his followers determined that leaving Florida offered their only opportunity to live in peace. On October 11, 1832, continued tensions with whites encroaching on the Apalachicola reservation compelled Blunt to cede his land to the United States. The Apalachicola Indians agreed to emigrate west of the Mississippi River and hoped to eventually settle along the Trinity River in Texas. After several aborted attempts, Blunt and other principal leaders of the Apalachicola Indians left Florida in late 1833 and early 1834. The last Apalachicola Indians hung on until October 1838 before being removed to Indian Territory. Blunt penned this letter during a tumultuous time for Native southerners. The emergence of the United States and plans to civilize the southeastern Indians in order to resolve the Indian Problem led to serious internal divisions among tribes throughout the region. In the end, whether traditionalist or friendly towards the Americans, by the 1850s, the United States government had removed the vast majority of southeastern Indians to the Indian Territory.
Type
text
in the destruction of Seminole and black

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