Clara Barton

Clara Barton of the Red Cross waited in Tampa for permission to go to Cuba in order to bring medical supplies and care for wounded soldiers.

During the war with Spain, 1,563 trained women served as contract nurses. Women served in all the geographic areas where troops were sent--Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Hawaii--on the three hospital ships used during the war, as well as in camp hospitals in the United States. (Military medicine in the Spanish-American War * Author(s): Alfred Jay Bollet)

After the Spanish American War, the face of nursing and especially army nursing changed. The soldiers’ deaths from disease ushered in major health reforms including the 1901 establishment of the Army Nurse Corp.

LTHOUGH hostilities lasted only four months, the Spanish-American War led to significant reforms in military medicine. The failure to
protect the health of American soldiers who had never been near
a battlefield became a national scandal. Why was typhoid fever, a
preventable disease, the major killer of the war?

...secondary camps to which troops had been transferred in
an attempt to rid the commands of typhoid fever (Camp Poland,
Knoxville, Tennessee; Camp Wheeler, Huntsville, Alabama; and the
temporary encampment at Fernandina, Florida).

(Fever and Reform: The Typhoid Epidemic in the Spanish-American War)

Clara Barton and Red Cross colleagues having a picnic: Tampa, Florida (1898)

Clara Barton and Red Cross colleagues having a picnic: Tampa, Florida (1898)

Image Number: RC13693

They are picnicking in Spring 1898, awaiting permission to take relief supplies to Cuba.

Red Cross ambulance in Tampa during the Spanish-American war (1898)

Red Cross ambulance in Tampa during the Spanish-American War (1898)

Image Number: RC07098

Fever wards at the division hospital: Jacksonville, Florida (1898)

Fever wards at the division hospital: Jacksonville, Florida (1898)

Image Number: N041310

Jacksonville, Key West, and Around the State

Florida became the setting for much of the preparation for the war. American volunteers stayed in Jacksonville, Tampa, Key West, and other locations around the state as they prepared to leave for Cuba. Ships were sent from Key West to blockade the island nation. Other ships left Florida ports to carry troops and supplies for the brief war.

Colonel and Mrs. William Jennings Bryan in a tent under the live oaks : Jacksonville, Florida

Colonel and Mrs. William Jennings Bryan in a tent under the live oaks: Jacksonville, Florida

Image Number: RC02394

Signal Corps telegraph and telephone office: Jacksonville, Florida

Signal Corps telegraph and telephone office: Jacksonville, Florida (1898)

Image Number: RC06498

Alligator shot by the captain of 4th Illinois Volunteers: Jacksonville, Florida (1898)

Alligator shot by the captain of 4th Illinois Volunteers: Jacksonville, Florida (1898)

Image Number: N041288

2nd Virginia Volunteers playing with a rattlesnake: Pablo Beach, Florida (1898)

2nd Virginia Volunteers playing with a rattlesnake: Pablo Beach, Florida (1898)

Image Number: N041287

The rattlesnake appears to be a large diamondback, with 11 buttons on its tail.

Soldiers of the 2nd Regiment of Louisiana Volunteers at train depot: Cocoa, Florida (1898)

Soldiers of the 2nd Regiment of Louisiana Volunteers at train depot: Cocoa, Florida (1898)

Image Number: RC06028

Photographed in June 1898.

3rd Nebraska Volunteers marching on the beach: Pablo Beach, Florida (1898)

3rd Nebraska Volunteers marching on the beach: Pablo Beach, Florida (1898)

Image Number: RC03606

Skirmish line entrenchment (1898)

Skirmish line entrenchment (1898)

Image Number: PR10237

9th Infantry breaking camp to embark for the Spanish-American war (1898)

9th Infantry breaking camp to embark for the Spanish-American War (1898)

Image Number: RC20111

9th United States Calvary training horses for Spanish-American War (ca. 1898)

9th United States Calvary training horses for Spanish-American War (ca. 1898)

Image Number: RC20112

Army signal corps soldiers during the Spanish-American war (1898)

Army signal corps soldiers during the Spanish-American War (1898)

Image Number: RC02351

Cooking for the 9th U.S. Cavalry

Cooking for the 9th U.S. Cavalry (1898)

Image Number: N041307

Camp barber at work during the Spanish-American war (1898)

Camp barber at work during the Spanish-American War (1898)

Image Number: RC13589

Chaplain of the New Jersey Volunteers handing a testament to an applicant

Chaplain of the New Jersey Volunteers handing a testament to an applicant (1898)

Image Number: N041309

Company B of the 21st Infantry on a dusty march during the Spanish-American war(1898)

Company B of the 21st Infantry on a dusty march during the Spanish-American War (1898)

Image Number: RC20113

Spanish-American War officer on a mule (1898)

Spanish-American War officer on a mule (1898)

Image Number: PR10243

Loading horses onto railroad cars at Port Tampa during the Spanish-American war (1898)

Transporting horses by railroad cars at Port Tampa during the Spanish-American War (1898)

Image Number: RC06502

Troops en route to Cuba (1898)

Troops en route to Cuba (1898)

Image Number: N041302

Cannons being loaded on transport preparing to sail to Cuba for the Spanish-American war: Tampa, Florida

Cannons being loaded on transport preparing to sail to Cuba for the Spanish-American War: Tampa, Florida

Image Number: RC02410

9th U.S. Cavalry embarking for Cuba: Port Tampa, Florida (1898)

9th U.S. Cavalry embarking for Cuba: Port Tampa, Florida (1898)

Image Number: RC04841

The End of the War and the Treaty of Paris

Once the United States forces joined the Cuban revolutionaries, Spain was quickly defeated. Admiral Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, the Philippines, on May 1, 1898. Then, the entire Spanish fleet in Santiago Bay, Cuba, was destroyed as they attempted to flee July 3.

The United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris December 10, 1898. This treaty formalized the end of the Spanish-American War.

In the treaty, several things happened. Spain ceded the islands Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. Spain granted independence to Cuba. Spain also sold the Philippines to the United States for $20,000,000.

The United States became more involved in Cuba, other Caribbean islands, and the Pacific islands.