Off the Beaten Path of History

One of the most exciting aspects of archival research is stumbling upon records and events you didn’t know existed. Did you know, for example, that Florida sent several companies of soldiers to fight in the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-48? The war was short-lived and Florida’s role was small, which accounts for why the episode is so seldom mentioned in histories of the state. Floridians did serve in this conflict, however, and the State Library & Archives have several excellent resources for learning more about their participation.

The chain of events leading to the U.S.-Mexican War began with the United States’ annexation of Texas as the 28th state in 1845. Mexico considered Texas part of its territory, even though its military had retreated across the Rio Grande following the Texas Revolution of 1835-36. Mexican commander Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana had even signed a treaty agreeing to Texas’ independence from Mexico.

This excerpt of an 1845 map of the United States shows the disputed region of Texas between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers. The mapmaker chose to show the Rio Grande as the southern boundary of Texas. Florida Map Collection, State Library of Florida.

This excerpt of an 1845 map of the United States shows the disputed region of Texas between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers. The mapmaker chose to show the Rio Grande as the southern boundary of Texas. Florida Map Collection, State Library of Florida. Click the image to enlarge it.

Mexico was experiencing internal troubles and did not immediately attempt to retake Texas after Santa Ana’s retreat. The sticking point was the exact location of the border between the two entities. The Texans claimed their territory ran as far south as the Rio Grande, since that was how far Santa Ana had agreed to retreat after the Texas Revolution. Mexico, on the other hand, claimed the border was supposed to be at the Nueces River, about 150 miles north of the Rio Grande. When the United States annexed Texas as a state in 1845, President James K. Polk claimed the Rio Grande as the true boundary. Polk sent a diplomatic mission to Mexico City to attempt to buy the disputed territory, but this strategy failed. Both the U.S. and Mexico began moving soldiers into the disputed area between the Nueces and the Rio Grande, and after a series of skirmishes in early and mid-1846 the two sides declared war.

Meanwhile, across the Gulf of Mexico, Florida had just emerged from a conflict of its own, the Second Seminole War. It had also entered the Union as a state in 1845. News of the growing troubles on the Mexican border evoked a mixture of caution and enthusiasm among Floridians. Citizens in coastal communities like Pensacola and Apalachicola feared the Mexican government might call on privateers to interfere with American ships in the Gulf of Mexico. Pensacola’s citizens held a public meeting on May 4, 1846 and resolved to form a company of volunteers from Escambia and Santa Rosa counties to march to Texas and fight. Duval County citizens petitioned Governor William D. Moseley to enlist their services for a company, even offering to purchase their own uniforms.

A petition to Governor William Dunn Moseley from citizens of Duval County asking to be chartered as a militia company (1846), in Box 4, folder 10, Territorial and Early Statehood Papers of Florida (Series 2153), State Archives of Florida.

A petition to Governor William Dunn Moseley from citizens of Duval County asking to be chartered as a militia company (1846), in Box 4, folder 10, Territorial and Early Statehood Papers of Florida (Series 2153), State Archives of Florida. Click the image to enlarge it.

Shortly after the war began in earnest, President James K. Polk called on Governor Moseley to raise five companies of volunteers to fight in the war. Ultimately, only three actually went to Mexico, but many more remained in Florida to protect the coastline and maintain a state of readiness in case they should be needed.

Documentation for these activities is meager but easily available at the State Library & Archives. Governor Moseley’s correspondence (Series 679) and the Territorial and Early Statehood Papers of Florida (Series 2153) contain documents illustrating local enthusiasm for volunteering to fight, concerns about the safety of the coastline, and the logistical headaches of fielding a state militia in the 1840s.

One particularly notable document describes the kinds of medicines that were sent to the Florida troops in Mexico. Quinine, calomel, mustard, lemon syrup, castor oil, snakeroot, turpentine, tartar emetic, paregoric, and flax seeds are among the medicines Surgeon William Tradewell reports receiving on this list.

A list of medicines drawn up by Army Surgeon William Tradewell (1847), in Box 2, folder 63, Territorial and Early Statehood Papers of Florida (Series 2153), State Archives of Florida. Click the image to enlarge it.

A list of medicines drawn up by Army Surgeon William Tradewell (1847), in Box 2, folder 63, Territorial and Early Statehood Papers of Florida (Series 2153), State Archives of Florida. Click the image to enlarge it.

To explore deeper into mid-19th century medicine, check out the Journal of Dr. John M.W. Davidson and our exhibit on Early Florida Medicine.

Documents from the U.S.-Mexican War also present an opportunity for genealogists. Generally, when a militia company formed, one of its first tasks was to create a muster roll identifying its members. These lists were vital for determining how much the unit would need in terms of supplies, arms, and pay. The roll was also often sent to the state government as part of a request for the company to be officially activated.

The State Archives holds muster rolls for the three Florida companies that served in Mexico, plus two more that served at Fort Brooke near Tampa. These rolls (found in Series 1282) list each soldier’s name, rank, age, time and place of enlistment, and other details. These documents can potentially help pinpoint the location of a Florida ancestor whose whereabouts in the 1840s have been otherwise tricky to find, if in fact he volunteered for service in this conflict.

This is just one example of the many nooks and crannies in Florida’s history that deserve more attention than they often receive. Are there interesting but obscure historical episodes associated with your Florida community? Get a conversation started about them either by leaving a comment below or sharing with us on Facebook!

What in the World is a Zouave?

Imagine it’s October 1861. You’re a Confederate soldier from Florida, encamped along Pensacola Bay. One afternoon, your commander says to get your equipment together and prepare for a night attack against Wilson’s Zouaves on Santa Rosa Island.

Fine, you say, but what in the world is a zouave?

Portrait of Brevet Brigadier General William Wilson, commander of the Sixth New York Volunteers, also known as

Portrait of Brevet Brigadier General William Wilson, commander of the Sixth New York Volunteers, also known as “Wilson’s Zouaves.” Note that Wilson’s attire here is not that of traditional zouave soldiers (circa 1860s).

In this particular case, the Zouaves were soldiers from the 6th New York Volunteer Infantry, which had been sent to the Pensacola area to defend United States military installations, including forts McRee, Pickens and Barrancas.

The term zouave is French, first used to identify regiments in the French Army populated by recruits from the Zouaoua tribe in Algeria. The first French zouaves appeared in 1831, and were distinguished by their unique uniform. The soldiers wore open-fronted jackets with baggy trousers, often colored red.

Wilson’s Zouaves, named for Brevet Brigadier General William Wilson, were organized in New York City. The “Zouaves” title appears to have been more of a nickname in this case, as images of the 6th New York Volunteers show its members dressed in standard military uniforms. The regiment left New York in June 1861 aboard the steamer Vanderbilt and headed for Pensacola Bay.

Map showing Fort Pickens and the encampment of the Sixth New York Volunteers, also known as Wilson's Zouaves. Included as an illustration in Gouverneur Morris, The History of a Volunteer Regiment, being a succinct account of the organization, services, and adventures of the Sixth Regiment New York Volunteers In fantry, known as Wilson Zouaves (1891).

Map (click to enlarge) showing Fort Pickens and the encampment of the Sixth New York Volunteers, also known as Wilson’s Zouaves. Included as an illustration in Gouverneur Morris, The History of a Volunteer Regiment, being a succinct account of the organization, services, and adventures of the Sixth Regiment New York Volunteers Infantry, known as Wilson Zouaves (1891). This rare book is part of the Florida Collection at the State Library.

In Florida, an uneasy peace had settled between the Union forces stationed at Fort Pickens and the Confederates holding the mainland along Pensacola Bay. The Confederates had sunk several vessels in the channel leading from Pensacola Bay to the Gulf of Mexico, to stave off a large-scale Union invasion. The federals had retaliated by setting fire to a large dry dock and other naval repair facilities in the area. They also burned the Confederate blockade runner Judah as it sat anchored in the harbor.

Camp of the Sixth New York Volunteers on Santa Rosa Island (1861).

Camp of the Sixth New York Volunteers on Santa Rosa Island (1861).

By this time, Wilson’s Zouaves were encamped on Santa Rosa Island, just east of Fort Pickens. General Braxton Bragg, at that time commander of Confederate forces in Pensacola, ordered an assault on the Union-held fort. General Richard Anderson had responsibility for carrying out the attack. Just after midnight on October 9, 1861, Anderson and a force of 1,200 Confederate soldiers crossed Pensacola Bay in two steamers and landed on Santa Rosa Island, far east of the Zouaves’ camp. Anderson divided his men into three columns and began marching west toward the New Yorkers.

The Sixth New York was indeed surprised by Anderson’s tactics. The camp was awakened when some of its pickets fired their guns in warning, and the Union soldiers put up a fight, but ultimately they fell back to Fort Pickens.

Image depicting the battle between the Sixth New York Volunteers (Wilson's Zouaves) and Confederate forces under General Richard Anderson on Santa Rosa Island (1861).

Image depicting the battle between the Sixth New York Volunteers (Wilson’s Zouaves) and Confederate forces under General Richard Anderson on Santa Rosa Island (1861).

Once Anderson’s attack began, Union commanders were able to send for reinforcements, which eventually forced the Confederates to retreat to the mainland. Fort Pickens remained in Union control, as it would until the end of the war. Wilson’s Zouaves, in the meantime, continued to serve in the Gulf region. Some companies stayed close to Pensacola, while others were sent to Louisiana.

For more information, check out our learning unit on Florida in the Civil War in the Online Classroom. Also, don’t forget the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Natural Bridge is coming up on March 6, 2015. The Florida Memory Blog will feature historical documents relating to the battle throughout the week of March 2-6.

Preparing for D-Day: Camp Gordon Johnston near Carrabelle

Today marks the 70th anniversary of the 1944 D-Day invasion, in which over 100,000 Allied troops stormed the beaches along the coast of Normandy, France, making it the largest seaborne invasion in history. Some of the troops  arrived by parachute, but the vast majority waded ashore after being transported in specially constructed vehicles. The Army and Navy had been planning for amphibious invasions like the one at Normandy for some time, and Camp Gordon Johnston near Carrabelle, Florida was one of the sites selected for training troops to do the job.

Map of the Florida Panhandle showing Carrabelle and nearby cities.

Map of the Florida Panhandle showing Carrabelle and nearby cities.

Carrabelle, a small town southwest of Tallahassee in Franklin County, was little more than a small fishing village when military leaders decided to use the terrain around it as an amphibious training base. A small military installation called Camp Carrabelle was already located here, but it would require major expansion to suit the Army’s needs. Once the site was selected, the federal government quickly bought up 10,000 acres of land and leased an additional 155,000 acres, forming a base with nearly twenty miles of frontage on the Gulf coast between St. George Island and Alligator Point, including Dog Island and the beaches near Carrabelle. In a few weeks contractors were already at work on the thousands of buildings and other structures needed to complete the training center. The new installation was named for Gordon Johnston, an Alabama native who served in the Spanish-American War and World War I and received the Medal of Honor in 1910.

An aerial view of Camp Gordon Johnston, with the Gulf of Mexico on the south (left). Photo 1943.

An aerial view of Camp Gordon Johnston, with the Gulf of Mexico on the south (left). Photo 1943.

Camp Gordon Johnston quickly developed a reputation for its tough conditions. For many of the camp’s first inhabitants, few of whom were actually from Florida, the contrast between the Florida of postcards and travel literature and the Florida they experienced was incredible. Because they had been thrown together in such short order to accommodate the troops, the barracks lacked dependable heating and in most cases had no floors. At first, the camp had no mess halls, and soldiers were obliged to eat their meals outdoors using their mess kits.

Barracks at Camp Gordon Johnston. Notice that the walls are little more than tar paper on a wooden frame (circa 1943).

Barracks at Camp Gordon Johnston. Notice that the walls are little more than tar paper on a wooden frame (circa 1943).

A wash-up shed at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

A wash-up shed at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

Soldiers wait in a chow line with mess kits in hand at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

Soldiers wait in line with mess kits in hand at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

Camp residents wash their mess kits in a pot of boiling water after a meal at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

Camp residents wash their mess kits in a pot of boiling water after a meal at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

The challenges of the terrain were no cakewalk, either. Sure, there was a beach, but as residents of the camp explained, there were also insects, snakes, lizards, mud, drenching rain, and stifling heat. Sergeant Bill Roth captured the feelings of the men toward Camp Gordon Johnston’s steamy conditions in a poem that appeared in one of the first issues of the camp’s newspaper, The Amphibian.

The rattlesnake bites you, the horsefly stings,
The mosquito delights you with his buzzin wings.
Sand burrs cause you to jig and dance
And those who sit down get ants in their pants.

The heat in the summer is one hundred and ten
Too hot for the Devil, too hot for the men.
Come see for yourself and you can tell
It’s a helluva place, this Carrabelle.

Living conditions nothwithstanding, soldiers at Camp Gordon Johnston found plenty of ways to entertain themselves during their stay. Carrabelle itself might not have been the most active metropolis, but GI’s could have a pleasant time reading in the camp’s library, fishing from one of the nearby piers, attending a USO-sponsored dance, or catching the latest movie at the camp’s theater. By the end of the war, the post featured five theaters, three service clubs for enlisted men, clubs for both commissioned and non-commissioned officers, baseball, baketball, and boxing leagues, and six chapels to minister to the spiritual needs of the camp residents. Tallahassee was the nearest city of any size, but it was already crowded with GI’s stationed at Dale Mabry Field. Soldiers reported difficulties even finding a room at the local hotels, but that didn’t stop them from trying. The Lee Bus Line and later a special passenger railroad carried residents of Camp Gordon Johnston to and from Tallahassee regularly.

Soldiers and visitors dance to music from a live band at one of Camp Gordon Johnston's dance halls (circa 1944).

Soldiers and visitors dance to music from a live band at one of Camp Gordon Johnston’s dance halls (circa 1944).

Training for amphibious warfare was the initial purpose of Camp Gordon Johnston, but as the war continued the Army began shifting more responsibility for this kind of tactic to the Navy. In 1943 the base was re-purposed as an Army Service Force Training Center, where small companies could be trained to operate boats and amphibious trucks for the Army’s “island-hopping” campaign in the Pacific. Engineers charged with constructing, repairing, and maintaining ports also trained at the center, and starting in 1944 small numbers of German and Italian prisoners of war were sent there.

Soldiers jumping obstacles during training at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

Soldiers jumping obstacles during training at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

Practicing maneuvers on the beach near Carrabelle (1943).

Practicing maneuvers on the beach near Carrabelle (1943).

A GM manufactured amphibious vehicle called a DUKW, located at Camp Gordon Johnston. DUKW was a code describing the specifications of the vehicle.

A GM manufactured amphibious vehicle called a DUKW, located at Camp Gordon Johnston. DUKW was a code describing the specifications of the vehicle. “D” stood for date (1942), “U” stood for amphibian, “K” indicated the vehicle was all-wheel drive, and “W” meant the vehicle had dual rear axles. Photo 1944.

Company photo of the 1057th Engineer Port Construction and Repair unit at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1944).

Company photo of the 1057th Engineer Port Construction and Repair unit at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1944).

A number of African-American troops resided at Camp Gordon Johnston during its tenure. For these men, many of whom were from the Northern U.S., entering the segregated world of the Florida Panhandle in the 1940s was a difficult transition. While white residents enjoyed the use of the camp’s guest house, library, and service clubs, black soldiers were not permitted to enter these facilities, nor was a segregated alternative provided until much later in the war. Moreover, Carrabelle and other nearby small towns were still in the grip of Jim Crow segregation laws, and tensions between the races at times broke out into violence.

African-American soldiers in front of barracks at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

African-American soldiers in front of barracks at Camp Gordon Johnston (circa 1943).

When news of the Japanese surrender reached Camp Gordon Johnston in 1945, the effect was said to have rivaled the power of the atomic bomb. Concerts and parades marked the occasion, and the demand for beer was so high that bartenders reportedly were forced to serve it before it had even had time to chill. With the war over, the camp’s life came to a close as well. The base officially shut down in early 1946, and by 1947 the federal government had disposed of its land in the region.

A barricade marked

A barricade marked “Government Property – Keep Off” blocks the driveway to the barracks of Camp Gordon Johnston after it closed in 1946.

Little remains of Camp Gordon Johnston, but local citizens and former camp residents still gather from time to time to reminisce about what it was like to train in the sun, sand, and heat around Carrabelle. The Camp Gordon Johnston Association organizes these reunions in cooperation with the American Legion Post at Lanark Village and other community partners.

Learn more about the World War II era in Florida by searching the Florida Photographic Collection. Teachers and students, you’ll find useful resources on the subject in our learning unit.