Julian Bond Dies at 75

Julian Bond, a Georgia native whose civil rights activism touched lives across the United States, died Saturday night in Fort Walton Beach. He was 75.

Julian Bond speaks at Ruby Diamond Auditorium at Florida State University (circa 1978).

Julian Bond speaks at Ruby Diamond Auditorium at Florida State University (circa 1978).

Bond was an early organizer of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) at Morehouse College in Atlanta. He was one of several African-Americans elected to the Georgia House of Representatives in 1965, but white members of the Georgia House refused to seat him, citing Bond’s advocacy for nonviolence in Vietnam as evidence of disloyalty. Bond’s case eventually reached the United States Supreme Court, which ruled unanimously that the Georgia House had denied him his freedom of speech. The Court ordered the Georgia House to seat Bond, who went on to serve four terms in the Georgia House of Representatives and six terms in the Georgia Senate.

Georgia State Senator Julian Bond speaking at Miami-Dade Community College during Black History Month (1984).

Georgia State Senator Julian Bond speaking at Miami-Dade Community College during Black History Month (1984).

Julian Bond spoke on numerous occasions in Florida, encouraging young people to vote and remain vigilant in the pursuit of equality. In 1971, he and fellow SNCC organizer John Lewis toured Florida on behalf of the Voter Education Project to encourage minority voters to participate in the political process. Bond and Lewis visited nine urban centers from Tallahassee to Homestead, urging their listeners to use the power of the ballot to make their voices heard. Bond followed up the visit with other voter registration drives over the years. “The political process is inescapable in this country,” he said during one event in St. Petersburg in 1977. “You’re all born into it. And you’re in it until you die.”

The following video is taken from a 1978 edition of the WFSU-TV program “Vibrations,” in which Bond describes some of the challenges of tackling civil rights issues as a state senator. Footage from one of Bond’s Florida speeches is included.

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More recently, in 2013, Julian Bond attended a rally of the “Dream Defenders,” whose members had just ended their occupation of the first floor of the Florida Capitol as a protest against Florida’s ‘Stand Your Ground’ law. “I say to the young people here, you’re ending a protest because you started a movement,” Bond said at the time.

Julian Bond listens as Phillip Agnew speaks during a rally of the

Julian Bond listens as Phillip Agnew speaks during a rally of the “Dream Defenders” at the State Capitol (2013).

Looking for more information on Julian Bond and his work? Look for these and other books at your local public library, or at the State Library of Florida in Tallahassee:

 

Julian Bond, Lift Every Voice and Sing: A Celebration of the Negro National Anthem (2000).

Julian Bond, NAACP: Celebrating a Century – 100 Years in Pictures (2009).

Arthur E. Thomas, Like It Is: Arthur E. Thomas Interviews Leaders on Black America (1981).

 

Florida Reacts to the Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (April 4, 1968)

Civil Rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated by gunshot on April 4, 1968 as he stood on the balcony of a motel in Memphis, Tennessee. The reaction across the United States was a mixture of disbelief, grief, and at times violent anger. Tensions boiled over in scores of U.S. cities such as Baltimore, Chicago, Kansas City, and Washington, D.C. as young people took to the streets to vent their frustration at the untimely death of one of the era’s greatest forces for peaceful change.

Reactions to King’s death were just as passionate in Florida, where memorials, demonstrations, and rioting took place in several cities across the state. Police in Pensacola, Tallahassee, Gainesville, Fort Pierce, Pompano Beach, Tampa, and Jacksonville reported widespread rioting and the use of Molotov cocktails to firebomb businesses and residences owned by whites. At least one fatality resulted from these activities in Tallahassee, where one man aged 19 died when a firebomb was thrown into his family’s grocery store.

Local and state officials moved quickly to restore order. The city of Gainesville instituted a curfew shortly after news of the assassination broke out, requiring everyone except emergency personnel to remain off the streets between 11pm and 6am. In Gainesville and Tallahassee, law enforcement temporarily closed liquor stores, bars, and gas stations. Governor Claude Kirk met with state law enforcement officials to plan a statewide strategy for maintaining the peace, and kept in close contact with local sheriffs and police.

Organizations both inside and outside of the government encouraged the public to remain calm and avoid any further violence. Governor Kirk asked that all flags flown on public buildings in the state be flown at half mast for two days, and in a press release he called on Dr. King’s followers and admirers to live by King’s example and seek nonviolent solutions for their grievances. George Gore, president of Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, closed the campus for a weeklong “cooling off” period following the assassination. The Florida Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) released a statement calling for Floridians to observe the day of King’s funeral (April 9th) as a “time of sober reflection” rather than demonstration.

Although anguish and disillusionment over the death of one of the Civil Rights Movement’s foremost leaders would remain potent long after these events, the most dramatic reactions ended by the middle of April 1968. Rumors circulated that Governor Kirk would call a special session of the Legislature to discuss the crisis, but this proved unnecessary. The brief period of unrest in Florida that followed Dr. King’s untimely death has been captured in a number of documents and photographs, some of which are shown below.

Governor Claude Kirk meets with state law enforcement officials to discuss a response to the unrest following Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination.

Governor Claude Kirk meets with state law enforcement officials to discuss a response to the unrest following Dr. Martin Luther King’s assassination.

Crow's Grocery Store, located at 1902 Lake Bradford Road in Tallahassee, Florida, was damaged when a Molotov cocktail firebomb was thrown inside during the unrest following Dr. King's death. Travis Crow, age 19, died of suffocation before he could escape the building.

This photo from the Tallahassee Fire Department Collection depicts one of the casualties of the reaction that followed Dr. King’s assassination. Crow’s Grocery Store, located at 1902 Lake Bradford Road in Tallahassee, Florida, was damaged when a Molotov cocktail firebomb was thrown inside. Travis Crow, age 19, died of suffocation before he could escape the building.

This Associated Press news summary describes some of the typical stories emerging from the widespread reaction to Dr. King's assassination.

This Associated Press news summary describes some of the typical stories emerging from the aftermath of Dr. King’s assassination.

The Florida Photographic Collection contains more images depicting Dr. Martin Luther King, his activities in Florida over the years, and the efforts of Floridians across the state to honor his memory.

Teachers and students may also find the Black History Month resources of our Online Classroom helpful, as well as our learning unit entitled The Civil Rights Movement in Florida.

The Tallahassee Bus Boycott Begins (May 1956)

On May 26, 1956, two female students from Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU), Wilhelmina Jakes and Carrie Patterson, sat down in the “whites only” section of a segregated bus in the city of Tallahassee. When they refused to move to the “colored” section at the rear of the bus, the driver pulled into a service station and called the police. Tallahassee police arrested Jakes and Patterson and charged them with “placing themselves in a position to incite a riot.”

In the days immediately following these arrests, students at FAMU organized a campus-wide boycott of city buses. Their collective stand against segregation set an example that propelled like-minded Tallahassee citizens into action. Soon, news of the boycott spread throughout the community.

Reverend C. K. Steele at the Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, Tallahassee, January 3, 1957

Reverend C. K. Steele at the Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, Tallahassee, January 3, 1957

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Patricia Stephens Due (December 9, 1939 – February 7, 2012)

Patricia Stephens Due at Civil rights demonstration in front of segregated theater: Tallahassee, Florida (1963)

Patricia Stephens Due at a civil rights demonstration in front of a segregated theater: Tallahassee, Florida (1963)

Civil rights activist Patricia Stephens Due passed away on Tuesday, February 7, at the age of 72.

Due, a native of Quincy, Florida, led demonstrations and voter-registration drives in Tallahassee during the height of the Civil Rights movement. She was among a group of students from Florida A&M University jailed for attempting to integrate a segregated lunch counter at a Woolworth’s department store in downtown Tallahassee on February 20, 1960.

Due and 8 of her companions from the Woolworth’s sit-in refused to pay a $300 fine, opting instead to serve jail time. Martin Luther King Jr. recognized their determination in the struggle for civil rights and sent letters to the jail. Other civil rights leaders including Jackie Robinson also contacted the group of 8 in the Leon County Jail.

Due penned a letter while in the Leon County Jail, detailing her commitment to civil rights and recounting the Woolworth’s sit-in. She participated in many other demonstrations in Tallahassee in the 1960s, joined several civil rights organizations and served as the field secretary for the Congress of Racial Equality in Tallahassee.

Tallahassee Mayor John Marks proclaimed May 11, 2011 “Patricia Stephens Due Day,” recognizing her critical role in and contributions to the Civil Rights movement in Tallahassee and beyond.

Sit-in at Woolworth's lunch counter - Tallahassee, Florida

Sit-in at Woolworth's lunch counter: Tallahassee, Florida (1960)